Mental health and substance abuse disorders are pressing challenges across the nation. While these problems can clearly take an enormous toll on individuals, they also involve sizable costs for society as a whole. For those without private insurance, problems can be particularly acute. Given funding challenges, dealing with these issues increasingly requires innovative approaches to maximize the return on investment in services. Even beyond the quality of life and other human costs, mental health disorders can be expensive in terms of treatment. With inadequate treatment, overall costs, such as comorbidities, loss of wages and productivity, incarceration, homelessness, and mortality, can notably escalate.